July 31, 2008
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Before going in detail of ISN,first of all we have to understand what is ISN.ISN is a number that is assigned to any device during the startup of the TCP connection.Now come to our first issue that is why the value of ISN is random.Let understand this thing by contradiction,let be assume that each device would start a connection by giving the first byte of data sent having sequence number 1.Now the problem with starting off each connection with a sequence number of 1 is that it introduces the possibility of segments from different connections getting mixed up. Suppose we established a TCP connection and sent a segment containing bytes 1 through 100. However, (suppose)there was a problem with the internetwork that caused this segment to be delayed, and eventually, the TCP connection itself to be terminated. We then started up a new connection and again used a starting sequence number of 1. As soon as this new connection was started, however, the old segment with bytes labeled 1 to 100 showed up. The other device would erroneously think those bytes were part of the new connection.Hence in this way all data get collapsed or may be reach to the wrong device.Hence to avoid this collison each TCP device, at the time of connection, chooses a 32-bit initial sequence number (ISN) for the connection. Each device has its own ISN, and they will normally not be the same.
Now come to our second issue of how the value of ISN can be selected.Whenever any device connected to any TCP network it choose the ISN by making use of a timed counter, like a clock of sorts, that was incremented every 4 microseconds. This counter was initialized when TCP started up and then its value increased by 1 every 4 microseconds until it reached the largest 32-bit value possible (4,294,967,295) at which point it “wrapped around” to 0 and resumed incrementing. Any time a new connection is set up, the ISN was taken from the current value of this timer. Since it takes over 4 hours to count from 0 to 4,294,967,295 at 4 microseconds per increment, this virtually assured that each connection will not conflict with any previous ones.But this method has also some drawback i.e a hacker or any computer network expert would write code to analyze ISNs and then predict the ISN of a subsequent TCP connection based on the ISNs used in earlier ones.This represents a security risk in the network which was occurred in the past.Now to overcome this situation network experts use a random number in their ISN selection process.
Hope you enjoy it.
Please give your comments for more improvement.
July 29, 2008
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As from the last post it is very much clear that RIS is much better and advantageous than standard interactive installation.Now i am going to tell you about the advantages of RIS over standard Installation.These advantages are as following:
1.Fewer errors during installation:Because RIS installation uses either preconfigured disk images or answer files to install and configure the operating system, there is minimal user interaction during the setup process. This reduces the number of errors that are introduced during setup.
2.Greater consistency:By using the same disk image or answer file to install and configure the operating system, you can ensure that all of the computers in your organization are set up exactly the same way.
3.Shorter installation time:RIS installation is faster than interactive installation because the operating system and applications are preinstalled and preconfigured on the disk image and require only minimal configuration after the disk image is copied to a destination computer. In addition, you can speed up the installation process by using the fully automated installation features of RIS. Instead of prompting end users or administrators for configuration information, the Setup program reads configuration settings from an answer file.
4.Lower support costs:By minimizing errors during the setup process, increasing the consistency of the computers in your organization, and reducing the amount of time an administrator needs to spend setting up a computer, you can reduce the overall support costs in your organization.
RIS is more complex and requires more upfront configuration and planning than other automated installation technologies. This is because RIS relies on several operating system services and protocols, as well as specialized hardware that supports the PXE specification. However, RIS installation is an efficient deployment technology if you have a high-speed network and you need to install clean operating systems and preconfigured applications onto a large number of computers with minimal end user or administrator interaction.
5.High speed network connectivity:The computers on which you are installing an operating system must all be connected to a reliable, high speed network. Wide area networks (WANs) that are connected with analog modems or Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) do not have sufficient bandwidth to support RIS installation.
6.PXE-enabled hardware:To take full advantage of RIS, each of the computers on which you are installing an operating system must have a Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI), Mini-PCI, or CardBus type of network adapter that supports the PXE specification. PXE-enabled network adapters allow client computers to be remotely booted. In addition, the basic input/output system (BIOS) for each computer must be capable of using the network adapter as a boot device (also known as remote-boot capability). A ROM BIOS that is at least version .99n satisfies this requirement. Also, most computers that conform to the Net PC or PC98 specifications have a PXE remote boot–enabled network adapter and remote boot–enabled BIOS.
The published PXE specification defines the remote boot process and also establishes the PXE compliance standards for hardware manufacturers and other vendors. RIS uses PXE environment extensions to Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), an industry-supported technology, to allow workstations to do the following:
• Boot remotely using their network adapters to access boot code from a network location.
• Install an operating system from a remote source to a client’s local hard disk.
The PXE environment is built upon Internet protocols and services that are widely used in the computer industry. This includes TCP/IP, DHCP, and TFTP. The PXE extensions to the DHCP protocol enable information to be sent to network-bootable systems and also allow these systems to locate remote installation services.
Although RIS is a fast, efficient automated installation technology, it has the following limitations:
1.Clean installation only:You can only use RIS to install a clean version of an operating system, with or without software applications. You cannot use RIS to upgrade an operating system or software configuration.
2.Limited configuration of server components:You might not be able to include all the server components that you want to provide with RIS installation. For example, some server components require that you install and configure them only after the RIS-based installation is complete. This can include components such as Certificate Services, the Cluster service, or software that is dependent on Active Directory.
3.No support for installing domain controllers:You cannot install a preconfigured domain controller using a RIS image. However, you can use RIS to install a stand-alone server and then configure the server as a domain controller by running the Active Directory Installation Wizard.
4.No support for configuring encryption and security settings:You cannot use RIS to deploy files that are encrypted with a system such as the Encrypting File System (EFS). Also, you cannot use RIS to deploy systems with preconfigured user-level security settings such as file and folder permissions. To configure these settings, you can run a script after completing your RIS-based installation.
5.No support for wireless networks:You cannot use RIS to deploy images over a wireless network. Wireless networks do not support remote-booting computers that use PXE technology.
6.Limited support for multihomed computers:Multihomed RIS servers are supported if the network adapters use multiple separate subnets or if all network adapters use the same subnet. In both cases, the RIS server must also be the DHCP server. The DHCP server must have active scopes for each subnet serviced and must be authorized for each IP address on the network adapters being serviced.
Now these are the advantages and disadvantages of RIS.Hope you enjoy it.
July 28, 2008
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July 25, 2008
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July 23, 2008
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Remote Installation Services (RIS) is an automated installation technology that you can use to create installation images of operating systems or of complete computer configurations, including desktop settings and applications. These installation images can then be made available to users at client computers. RIS is typically used during large-scale deployments when it would be too slow and costly to have administrators or end users interactively install the operating system on individual computers.
Compared to a standard interactive installation, RIS decreases installation time, eliminates the need to use CDs during installation, and minimizes end user and administrator interaction during installations. To accomplish this, RIS relies on Pre-Boot eXecution Environment (PXE) technology. PXE technology enables computers without an operating system to start up and connect remotely over a TCP/IP network connection to a RIS server, which then installs an operating system. The client computers must support remote booting with the PXE ROM, or they must be started with a remote-startup floppy disk and have a network adapter that is supported by that disk.
To perform a RIS installation, an administrator or end user typically boots a client computer from a PXE-capable network adapter by pressing F12 early in the startup process. This instructs the computer to acquire an IP address and connect to a RIS server. The client computer then downloads a small version of the Windows Setup program from the RIS server. You can configure a RIS installation so that the Windows Setup program interactively steps the administrator or end user through a shortened setup process, or you can configure it so that the entire setup process is automated after the end user or administrator presses F12. Also, you can configure a RIS installation so the installation is image-based or setup-based. By using image-based installations, you can deploy applications with an operating system. By using setup-based installations, you have more flexibility in terms of handling hardware differences among the computers in your organization.
July 16, 2008
Now begin with the definition of the multiprocessor systems.If any system that contains more than one general purpose CPU,then these types of systems are known as the multiprocessor systems.Multiprocessor systems are also known as Parallel systems and tightly coupled systems.In these types of systems two or more processors are in close communication ,sharing the bus and sometimes the clock,memory and peripheral devices.
The multiprocessor systems are more advantageous over the single processor systems.The first advantage of this system is that the overall throughput is increased.The second advantage is the economy of scale.Multiprocessor systems can cost less than equivalent multiple single-processor systems,because they can share peripherals,mass storage, and power supplies.The third advantage of this system is that our system becomes more reliable.If functions can be distributed properly among the several processors,then the failure of one processor will not halt the system only slow it down.
Now a days the multiprocessor systems that are used of two types.These two types are asymmetric multiprocessing and symmetric multiprocessing.
Asymmetric Multiprocessing: In this system of multiprocessing each processor is assigned a specific task.A master processor controls the system,the other processors either look to the master for instruction or have predefined tasks.This scheme defines a master slave relationship.The master processor schedules and allocates work to the slave processors.
Symmetric Multiprocessing:In this system of multiprocessing each processor performs all tasks within the operating system.Symmetric multiprocessing means that all processors are peers,no master slave relationship exists between the processors.The main benefit of this system is that many processes can run simultaneously on this system.If there are N CPUs then N processes can run simultaneously without any deterioration.
July 15, 2008
The virus that i am going to tell you is known as shutdown virus.On clicking the virus it activated and your computer is turned off automatically,and their is no way to stop that shutdown.This virus is totally harmless and does not affect your computer.Its a normal shutdown process.Now you can made this virus by simply following these steps.Steps must be followed in that order in which i mention otherwise it will not work.Steps are following:
Step:1 Go to your desktop and right click their on clicking you see a "new" option which has many options in it, then select "new shortcut" from it option.
Step2: On doing this you see a frame like in figure.Type shutdown -s -t 1000 -c "Comment" in the textfield.In this command the numeric value "1000" represents the time in seconds after which computer shut down.You can set this value as per your choice.The comment in the command represents the message that you want to displayed when the computer is going to shutdown.
Step3: On clicking next you see a next window in which you are asked to gave it the name.Now to make this virus more exciting gave it name of "Internet Explorer".You can also gave it name of your choice.After giving it name your virus is complete.Now in the last step you have to assign it an image of internet explorer as you gave it name "Internet Explorer".
Step4: Now for giving its a image, right click on the virus and select properties.In properties select shortcut.In shortcut select change icon option.After that you see a frame click OK in that and select the image of internet explorer.After this step your Internet Explorer Virus is complete.
Now the main question that arises in your mind is that is their any way to disable this virus.This virus is so attached to your operating system that task manager is also helpless in front of it.The only way to disable it is this:
Go the the start button click on it,then select run from it.Then type "shutdown -a" in the textfield of run,after on click on OK button this virus is disabled and your computer come out from the shutdown state.
Hope you enjoy it.
July 13, 2008
Before starting with FTP server,first of all we have to understand what is FTP.The term FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol,this protocol is used to transfer files between computer on the network like internet.Generally it is a protocol that is used for manipulating and exchanging files on any computer that is based on TCP network.Today the most common use of FTP is download files from the internet.Generally what happens when you download files from the internet what actually you did that you you're actually transferring the file to your computer from another computer over the Internet.Now we are coming to our main topic that is of FTP server.A FTP server is a software application that is responsible for the running of the FTP protocol.The FTP server manipulates all the files that are received by it from its clients.
Now a new question arises that is what is FTP client. An FTP Client is software that is designed to transfer files back-and-forth between two computers over the Internet. It needs to be installed on your computer and can only be used with a live connection to the Internet.Now if we talk about the security of FTP,it is assumed that it is an insecure method of data transfer because in this method no encryption of data takes place.This means any computer on the same network with the use of packet sniffer can view the transferred files.To overcome this advantage it is recommended that you should use SFTP (SSH File Transfer Protocol) or FTPS (FTP over SSL) so that your data is in encrypted form.
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