February 28, 2008

Theory of RAM

Hello friends I am back with some new interesting topics to share with you that are most confusable. Here, I am going you to discuss one of the major part of our computer system that is SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) commonly referred as RAM. The first version of RAM that came into existence is SDR (Single Data Rate) RAM , these types of RAM are of SDR in nature that means here SDR RAM reads data only on the rising edge of the clock signal that implies half of the clock signal is wasted. These types of RAM are used before 2002. In 2002 a new type of RAM hits the main stream computer market named as DDR(Double Data Rate) RAM. The DDR RAM is the extended version of SDR RAM as from its name it is clears that it reads the data with twice speed in comparison to SDR RAM. It reads the data from both the trailing edge and rising edge of the clock pulse.

The main drawback of DDR RAM is that it had a limited clock rate, hence some changes are required in its architecture this gave the birth to a extended version of DDR RAM which is commonly known as DDR2 RAM. With DDR2 RAM we can achieve speed that is beyond of DDR RAM. It delivers a bandwidth of about 5.3GB/second and above it because it is able to operate with faster bus speeds. As all we know all motherboards can support only one type of RAM, that means you cannot mix and match SDRAM, DDR, or DDR2 memory on the same motherboard in any system. They will not function and will not even fit in the same sockets.

February 27, 2008

InfraRed Communication

As all we know what are the Infrared radiations, these are the radiations that are not visible from naked eyes, we can feel only these rays by their heating effect. More about infrared rays we can say that in daily life the heat that we received from the sun is the form of Infra red radiation. As all we know in the electromagnetic spectrum infrared radiations lies between microwaves and visible light,hence it can be used as a source of communication. As, here I going to tell u how infrared technology used incommunication. For infra red communication a photoled transmitter and a photodiode receptor is required. In Infrared communication the LED transmitter transmits the infrared signal as bursts of non-visible light. At the receiver end a photo-diode or a photo receptor detects and captures the light pulses,which are then proceed to retrieve the information they contain. In this way the information between the source and the target is transferred.The source and target can be mobile phones, laptops and any other thing that supports wireless communication. The main advantage of Infrared communication is that the power requirement for it is very low,hence it is best suitable for laptops,telephones etc.The circuitiry cost for it is also low.As the information transferred through infrared communication is highly secure because the data flow between the source and the target is unidirectional, means directionality of the infrared beam ensures that isn’t leaked or move to nearby devices as it’s transmitted.With having advantage, it also had some disadvantages like for data transmission between the source and target they must be directly aligned means both of them able to see each other. One of the major disadvantage of Infrared communication is that it is of short range in nature means it can not work when the source and target are at large distance from each other. The information transmitted through IR communication is easily affected by obstacles like peoples, walls etc, if they exists in the way of line of transmission, hence complete data is not received. The IR communication is also effected by environmental condition like weather, sunlight, rain, pollution etc. From all these points it is clear that IR communication is not a suitable method of wireless communication. Today, there are many technologies exists that are much better than IR like Bluetooth, Wi-fi etc.

The funda of GPS

Hello friends,in this blog i want to give you some information regarding GPS(Global Positioning System).Actually,GPS is a technology which is used to find the location of its user.In the begining it intended only for the military purpose,but in the begining of 1980 it is available for the civilian use.GPS technology was developed by the Department of Defense of U.S. government.In technical words we can say that GPS is a fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS) which is a network of 24 satellites placed in earth’s orbit.GPS is totally envirnoment or condition independent.It can works in any weather ,anywhere in the world and 24 hours a day.Actually GPS satellite works due to the centripretal force between GPS satellite and earth due to which it revolves around the earth twice in a day in very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth.
At earth GPS receiver receives these signal and uses triangulation to calculate user’s exact location.GPS is launched because to figure out where you are and where you’re going is probably one of oldest pastimes.The user’s location is calculated such that,the time difference between the transmitter send the signal and the receiver received the signal is calculated,and then with the help of other satellites the receiver can determine the user’s position and display it on the unit’s electronic map.In this way the position of any body can be calculated.Since,the era of GPS is started and in the next few years GPS will be at its top.

The 45 nm effect

Hello friends in this blog i want to give you some information regarding “the 45nm effect” in chips.I hope it will be beneficial to you if you go through it. As all we know chips are the most important circuitry part of processors and processor speed is also depends on the size of the chips.In recent years chip making technology has been moved from 90nm to 65nm,but today it moved up to 45nm.The worlds largest processor making company Intel is shrinking chip sizes like never before.Intel has invested $1.5 billion in this project.Intel’s 45nm chip is believed to be smaller,faster,and more power efficient than all its predecessors. The “45nm effect” implies that by using nano technology size of the chips can be reduced up to 45nm. Hence, in order to reduce the chip size we have to reduce the transistor size,but as the transistor get thinner,electrical leakage takes place in the transistors.Hence while shrinking the size of the silicon-di-oxide gate dielectric,transistor gate leakage was one of the most difficult technical challenges that industry faced. To get rid of this problem,Intel has developed a hafnium-based material with the high k property (where k is the dielectric constant of the material),which helps deliver transistors with very low leakage current and high performance.Reducing power leakage and improving performance are the most important features of Intel project.The company’s most advanced manufacturing technology today is 65nm,which went into commercial production last year.In the current stage Intel has about fifteen 45nm product design in various stages of development.The resulting chips that are formed after “45 nm” technology will have 820 millions transistors to put in for parallel computing,energy management and graphics.
Today market is still waiting for applications of this 45nm chip.The chips that are produced on 45nm technology will be faster ,consume less energy,contain more transistor and be cheaper to mass produce.All of this results in better PC,laptop and server processor speed,while reducing the amount of power leakage from transistors and hence overall efficiency is increased.In today’s server environment people want to consolidate.This is an opportunity for software developers across the globe to implement parallelism in their applications.But this is not the limit,very soon we see microprocessors that use up to 32nanometere chips from this industry.The future of smaller and more intelligent chips,according to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors or ITRS(http://www.irts.net/reports.html),will be 32nm,22nm and then 16nm technology.

The era of tera

As all we know this is the age of science. In this scientific age computers played an important role in everyone’s life.A few years ago we thinked that if any computer executed thousands instruction per second then it is sufficient for any task,but as the requirement increases it is required to execute millions of instructions per second for that dual core and quad core processors are launched but these were hot topics only for a meanwhile.As the demand for computing power increases,the industry is moving towards “massively multi core technology”,in this technology such types of processors are required that can execute trillions of instructions per second.Hence in this order to achieve these task “teraflop” processors are launched.The performance of first teraflop computer is not as per requirements,there are some drawbacks associated with it,like it occupies a great space(more than 180 squares meters) and consumed 500 kilowatts of electricity and was powered by nearly 10,000 Pentium pro processors.In 2007, Intel achieved the same performance on a multi-core chip not bigger than a finger nail and consuming only 62 watts of power.On its launching its official stated that whenever in future,if there is need for this huge computing power ,then the end products will definitely come.The company revealed the artificial intelligence,instant video communications,photo realistic games,multimedia data mining could become everyday realities.
The company also demonstrated a computer based on the 80-core chip running a scientific calculation at speeds above 1 trillion mathematical calculations per second.This level of performance is equivalent to that world’s fastest supercomputer of a decade ago.As all we knows performance is not directly related to the numbers of cores in a processor because after a certain level it starts diminishing.

As from all these points it is clear that “tera scale”computing has a bright future.If the world requires this high amount of computing power in future,”the era of tera” will definitely become a reality.

February 10, 2008

Network Wizard

Hello friends in this blog, I am going to tell u some intresting point about “Network Hardware”.I hope it will be beneficial for you if going through it.Now,I start my point from the what technical issues involved in network design. As,all we know that there is no accepted taxonomy(design) into which all computer networks fit.Hence,for the sake of this problem it is assumed that whole network architecture depends on the following dimension:

1. Transmission Technology

2. Scale

Now here we put our whole concentration over the how Networks re classified on the basis of scale.On the basis of scale netwoks are classified as PAN,LAN,MAN and WAN,now further we define each one and how they works.

First of all we start with PAN implies Personal Area Network.From the name it is clear that this type of network belongs to one person.The most common example of PAN is Wireless network like Bluetooth,Infrared etc.For ex: a computer is connected to its parts like mouse,keyboard through any of these wireless technology.

Now,we move one step ahead and come on our next network category i.e LAN simply means Local Area Network are privately owned networks within a single building or campus of up to a few kilometers in size.Genrally,they are used to connect personal computers and workstations in comapanies,colleges,workstations to share the resources(eg.printer and scanner).Actually,LAN’s are restricted in size,which means that we have known our worst case transmission time in advance.LAN’s uses wire to connect all computers through main server for its transmission.Traditional LAN’s runs at a speed of 10Mbps t0 100Mbps and make very few errors during its transmission.LAN can be of any type it may either in the form of bus(i.e a linear cable network) or in the form of ring network.Now I stop my discussion here on LAN and move on next step i.e MAN.

MAN simply implies Metropolitan Area Network used whenever it is required to connect a city or to cover wide range.The best known example for MAN is the cable television network available in the cities.There are some drawbacks in MAN due to which it is not frequently used,in place of it WAN is used which is our next step.

A wide area network or WAN,spans a large geographical area often a country or continent.It contains a collection of machines used for running user application.Traditionally these machines are known as hosts.These hosts are connected by a communication subnet.The main task of these subnetys are to carry messages from host to host.WAN manily consists two components the one is Transmission lines and the second one is switching elements.The main task of transmission line is to carry information while on the other hand Switching elements are the specalized computers that are connected to three or more transmission lines.Now,here I stop writing it is not possible for me to cover all about network hardware,but I tried my best to explain it in short.I hope u enjoyed it.

February 9, 2008

Craze of Bluetooth

Hello friends this is my first blog and in this blog I m going to tell you about “Bluetooth” technology and how it works, what are their advantages and disadvantages and a lot of stuff about Bluetooth Technology. First of all, I want to told you from where word “Bluetooth” came, it put on the name of a great Denmark king whose name was “Harald Bluetooth” a thousand years of ago. Now the question is, what is bluetooth technology, actually it is a technology which is used for low-power radio communications to wirelessly link phones, computers and other network devices over short distances. Initially it was developed for support of personal wireless devices including cell phones, PDAs, and wireless headsets.The signals that are transmitted through “Bluetooth” devices are short distance in nature, they diminishes after 10m(30 feet).The data transferred through Bluetooth devices is at a rate of less than 1Mbps.As I already told you “Bluetooth” devices works on the principle of radio communication systems, so it is not required that the two Bluetooth devices must be in line of sight of each other, they can be either in different rooms, as long as the received transmission is powerful enough. Today,there are many bluetooth enabled devices exists such as phones, printers, modems and headsets etc. This technology is useful only when the Bluetooth enabled devices are present in low- bandwidth position. Today Bluetooth is mainly used in cell phones to transfer sound data, or text data with laptops, and from Bluetooth enabled devices.

From the security point of view, the data transferred between blue tooth devices is encrypted through some custom algorithms so that it can be safely transmitted. Hence, we can say that data transferred through Bluetooth devices is secure.As, the work is going on the development of Bluetooth so that it can be made more faster,simpler in comparison to other wireless technology.


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